Seven Worlds One Planet
Jonny Keeling: 26:05 Oh, it’s a, it’s a pleasure. It’s, I mean, it’s genuinely no trouble. I, I really enjoy it. I love it. Um, I love bringing those stories of the natural world to an audience. And I personally, you know, when I’m out on location, there’s no greater pleasure than sitting and watching an animal and trying to work out what it’s going to do and how are you going to film it and how can you tell a nice and interesting and engaging story from it. That’s the greatest pleasure.
That’s Jonny Keeling, veteran television producer of famed BBC Natural History series such as Planet Earth and Blue Planet – and now the executive producer of the most ambitious series about our natural world ever undertaken. It’s called Seven Worlds One Planet and will premier on BBC America next month. Jonny joined me from the BBC Natural History Unit’s studio in Bristol, England, while here with me in our Manhattan studio is Courtney Thomasma, Executive Director of BBC America.
Alan Alda: 00:00 This is an amazing project. Seven worlds, one planet. You really do cover seven worlds, don’t you?
Jonny Keeling: 00:08 Yes, we went everywhere to every continent on the, uh,
Alan Alda: 00:12 and when I love about the title, which I think you, you started with the title, right, with that concept of how different the seven continents are to the extent that they really each make up practically a different world.
Jonny Keeling: 00:27 That’s right. Because there was one originally 200 million years ago, there was one single continent Pangea, which is a super continent and that ruptured and broke up and all those fragments, there’s that jigsaw puzzle then scattered to the corners of the earth and the seven continents according to where they are then have a very different life. If you think of Antarctica on the bottom of the earth, if that really is the bottom, we don’t know. But anyway, so the bottom of the earth as we see it, and then that’s all covered in ice. And then you see Africa right in the center of the earth. And that’s remained roughly where it, where it originally was. And um, yeah, so they’ve all broken off into different parts. And they’ve all then developed their own personality and their own characteristics, which is, um, then led to the animals that live there. Cause when they, when it starts to break up, animals are on those seraphs of land already and over millions of years that then evolves and change into different species. So you get very different groups of animals in each of the continents.
Alan Alda: 01:22 Didn’t, uh, it wasn’t India at one point its own continent that smashed into, uh, Asia.
Jonny Keeling: 01:30 That’s exactly right. So it smashed into Northern Asia and created the Himalayas, which then created incredible weather system. The monsoon because as the, as the moist air comes in off the Indian ocean, that hits the barrier of the, of the Himalayas.
Alan Alda: 01:46 Ah, I never knew, I always wondered where the monsoons came from. It’s so interesting that the geology, which is basically entered rocks except for how they’re moving around and crashing into one another, have such an effect on life and on weather. And uh, you know, as you just described with the Himalayas.
Jonny Keeling: 02:08 Yeah. And we just don’t think about it. But actually all of that geology impacts not only the animals, but obviously all of our geopolitical, um, sort of system as well. If you think about where some of the boundaries are and where great Wars have happened and so on that, that, you know, that’s all to do with the geography and the geology of the land. Um, which is, you know, something that’s happened over millions and millions of years, but we just don’t really give it any thought.
Alan Alda: 02:34 So when India became part of Asia by becoming a Gatecrasher, did that spread the life of those to be the two to two continents that had been separated before? Did the life spread among all of them or were they confined by Himalayas and other factors?
Jonny Keeling: 02:57 I don’t know. Actually I wasn’t, I wasn’t there, but I know the goal. All I know is that the mountains, there were no mountains there before. And then when they crashed in the mountains formed and that then created a whole new system. And actually in seven worlds in the series, we feature some of the mountains of Asia and some extraordinary animals there and some monkeys. And golden sub nose monkeys, which looked like nothing else you’ve seen on earth really. They’ve got blue faces and that she had blue balls as well. And partly cause it’s a, um, it’s very cold up there now they have their, they’re in the, the, the Himalayas and it’s really, really cold. Other, sorry, not in the Himalayas. They’re in these Chinese mountains and they, um, uh, you know, again, they wouldn’t be there if it wasn’t for the mountains that had been formed across Asia. So that’s part of our story is looking at some of the geology, I mean, it’s quite light touch geology, lots of the, the stories that we feature our animal behavior, but some of it we touch on the geology of those, uh, those creatures of this continent. Sorry.
Alan Alda: 04:04 There’s a key element in the series seems to be how diversity biodiversity has developed partly as a result of the seven separated continents. Is that right?
Jonny Keeling: 04:23 That’s right, yeah. Because if you imagine if there’s one supercontinent Pangea that if that had remained as it was, you would have, it’s a big sort of amorphous mass and it’s a sort of, uh, you know, there’s sort of homogeneity within that. It’s just sort of a uniformity. Whereas if you broken that continent apart and then animals are developed in isolation, that drives by diversity and drives the millions of species that are, that are on a,
Alan Alda: 04:49 I think it’s, I, I think it’s interesting to explore why biodiversity is so important. Why is it, why did, why does it matter to us as humans and why does it matter to the rest of life?
Jonny Keeling: 05:03 Well, there’s a few reasons. Um, I mean, I would say there’s one very sort of, um, sort of soft reason or simple reason, which is actually, it matters to us to see the natural world and to see that great variety because it, it makes us have a sense of wellbeing. It makes us, uh, inspires us in terms of literature and art and inspires us as a human race. But that’s one reason I think if you were looking for hard reasons, you might say the ecosystem services that are provided by the natural world in terms of sequestering carbon. And you know, I think the, um, I something like 5.6 gigatons of carbon are sucked up by the natural world every year. And if we didn’t have that, climate change would be a lot more abrupt and a lot more obvious. I think. Uh, I mean, there’s a great example in New York actually have a, um, whether the city of New York decided to protect an ecosystem, uh, at the cost of $2 billion, um, and it helped to clean the water.
Jonny Keeling: 06:07 And I think now 90% of the water in New York doesn’t have to be filtered. And you, maybe you can taste that, but there’s, it means that, uh, they didn’t have to build a filter special filtration plan, which would have cost $10 billion. So the natural, by protecting the natural ecosystem, they saved $8 billion. So there’s some hard facts as to the ecosystem services provided by biodiversity and by the natural world. Um, I mean there’s plenty of other examples like that, um, of, of it’s stopping flooding, uh, protecting us from tsunamis, protecting us from hurricanes. Um, anyway, I mean it could go on.
Alan Alda: 06:44 So the biodiversity, the, the acute differences among various kinds of animals must have an effect on the environment and the environment on them in turn, a kind of dynamic relationship that gives us benefits that we don’t, we don’t track so easily. I mean, there are probably many steps. We’re not aware of the bugs decompose, decomposing leaves and things like that.
Jonny Keeling: 07:14 Exactly. I mean, another example is in, in Europe, in the last, well in my lifetime, in the last 50 years or 40 years even, I think I’m flying insects in Europe have declined by 75%. And then you think, well, flying insects does that really matter. But if you imagine all the crops, all the food that we eat, um, all the, uh, the nuts and the fruit and everything that’s pollinated by insects and often by flying insects. So that is something, again, with no one thinks about. I mean it’s the very simple way that I would boil it down to is every single mouthful of food that you take and every single breath of air that you breathe depends on a healthy, natural world. And that is as simple as it gets.
Alan Alda: 07:59 Good reason to watch the show and find out how that works cause I do want to keep breathing
Jonny Keeling: 08:06 [inaudible]
Alan Alda: 08:06 the uh, the task you had of going to all of these far away places and showing us nature as it’s happening and interacting with itself that that’s a huge undertaking. How many people were involved in the making of this series?
Jonny Keeling: 08:30 It was all me. Just me.
Alan Alda: 08:33 Amazing. You held the camera and swept up after this. Great.
Jonny Keeling: 08:37 Yeah. I mean I’d like to thank the team, but it was entirely me. No, I was, yeah, joking aside, there was a team in Bristol here in England of a core team of about 20 or 25 people, but around the world we worked with 1500 over four years in more than 40 countries, more than 90 expeditions. And we filmed 2,270 something hours of footage. So that’s 300 of our hours for each hour that’s on, on television. So is it, it is a massive undertaking.
Alan Alda: 09:13 You must have seen a lot of diversity among the people you met as you, as you went around the world and worked with different crews and met the people in restaurants and that can eating different kinds of food. What was that experience like for you? There are a few people who have traveled the world the way you have in the past four years.
Jonny Keeling: 09:33 Yeah. I mean it is a very diverse production, you know, cause some people sort of say, well what’s the, what’s the diversity like in your production team? And you say, well, it’s about as diverse as it gets because it’s every, you know, these 1500 people live in every corner of the planet. Um, and yeah, it, it’s, I w I, I love it. I mean I love, I love traveling and I love seeing wild animals and I like going to wild places and I really, really enjoy telling that story and bringing that back to, to as bigger audience as possible and engaging and exciting them. And getting them to love the natural world as well.
Alan Alda: 10:07 Did you have to sleep in a tent in the top of a mountain often?
Jonny Keeling: 10:13 Uh, I’ve definitely done that a few times. Yeah. Uh, set up trees. Dan caves. Um, I’m trying to think where else we’ve been on boats. I think the worst one is sailing down to Antarctica on a, on a boat with eight to 10 meter waves. That was pretty horrific. There wasn’t much speeder wave. Yeah, that’s pretty unpleasant
Alan Alda: 10:34 that see that’s why when I go on vacation, I like any place that has a lobby. Johnny does too. Now, right now tell me, this is so interesting, you tell me about this study that makes it possible to get the benefit of nature without actually having to sleep in a tent on top of a mountain. Tell me about it.
Courtney Thomasma: 11:02 It’s pretty incredible. Uh, we, we at BBC America and working with BBC in the natural history unit have seen an incredible Renaissance in viewership, interest, popularity of nature programming, um, stemming back a couple of years ago with the launch of planet earth too. Um, and, and ever since then, we’ve been setting new viewership records, um, at a time when media fragmentation is, we’re literally in a peak TV world with hundreds and even probably a thousand new shows being released a year and people are still coming together to watch nature programming.
Alan Alda: 11:44 And it seems to be, according to the study that I read about, it seems to be almost as beneficial as going out into nature itself.
Speaker 3: 11:54 That’s right. Tell me about that study. We, um, given given the Renaissance in, in this programming, we actually just wanted to, out of curiosity to find out why, what was happening now. And we found that there’s a number of, of forces at work, uh, planet earth two launched just after the Brexit vote in the U K just after an incredibly divisive and polarizing presidential election in the U S people come themselves by looking at nature, I think I will say, I think, um, paranoia and in some ways fear and instability was, was at an all time high. And, and this kind of content is incredibly unifying and really an antidote to the chaos of the modern world. So we spent this year working with a cultural anthropologist, uh, named Susan [inaudible] to dig into what benefits, what, what were people getting out of this content? What do they get out? We found, uh, we found the big, big learning is that watching nature programming delivers many of the same benefits as direct experience with nature.
Alan Alda: 13:07 I believe, although I’ve seen virtual reality setups help people get over fear of flying fear of insects, of spiders, and it’s almost like the reverse of that. This, instead of alleviating your fear of some bug, it introduces you to it in a way that inspires some kind of [inaudible].
Courtney Thomasma: 13:33 Oh, that’s right. Uh, there’s a state that environmental psychologists have identified decades ago. It’s called soft fascination. Um, and it’s just, that’s a state of mind. Yeah. State of being, it’s really unique and it’s something that nature, it’s a direct experience with nature was found to facilitate. It’s a state where you’re simultaneously stimulated, but it’s also undemanding. It doesn’t require a lot of work or effort, but you get really rich stimulating benefits from, from that experience. When we studied people watching nature programming this year, that was the exact same state that they were describing experiencing.
Alan Alda: 14:16 Can you, can you track it with the, an EEG machine? Can you see what they’re going through? A phase, a brain, a brain wave like they would in meditation or something.
Courtney Thomasma: 14:26 I think that’s, uh, I think that’s something that we’re exploring as a followup to this. There’s a professor at UC Berkeley who has been studying the same things, um, of the fact that nature makes you happy. And, um, in our own lives, I can watch nature videos while I’m in the lobby of the hotel lobby. Um, but it’s, it’s true. More people live urban areas today than in any other point in history. We know that that nature has incredible benefits for your health and wellbeing and,
Alan Alda: 15:02 and we’re really missing it. But the more we congregate in cities, the farther away we are from it
Courtney Thomasma: 15:07 and people are hungry for it. Um, there’s no question about it. We are, we are, you know, we are creatures of nature as well and we have a Nate needs, um, and a desire to see the world, to see the stories of our planet, which I think Johnny and team deliver better.
Alan Alda: 15:25 Go back stories. John, how do you, how do you involve storytelling in, in the series a, how do you use the idea of storytelling in this series?
Jonny Keeling: 15:38 I think it’s really, really important. Um, and particularly in the last five or six years, I would say we’ve really moved on. And so our stories are emotionally led and that might seem very obvious, but actually I worked on the first planet earth series and if you go back and watch that, it’s a little bit more distant, you know, even from the camera work, your, you’re sort of far away and you’re observing something and it’s, but now we’re trying to tell stories, uh, from a character base sort of position. So I mean, I have an example in seven worlds. We have a story about wild hamsters living in Europe, in the graveyards of Vienna. This is in the European episode and they’re robbing the graves of the flowers that people are putting on the graveyards and stealing those and eating them. And so we tell that from the basis of an individual character and so that you, you feel so much more and your emotionally led as opposed to just saying there are, you know, information and eat.
Jonny Keeling: 16:35 There are, you know, hamsters living there, you know, but we try to do it as a really, really embedded and emotionally led. And that’s really, really important for us because I think it makes people connect with the natural worlds. If you look at every single story in seven worlds, the first question I asked when the teams they were thinking of filming this is ISA, what’s the emotion? What’s the audience going to feel? And then to make sure that there’s an emotional range throughout each episode as well. So you’re not just having, you know, animals killing each other in every single scene or mother and child. And every senior there’s an emotional range of laughter and tears and or in wonder and everything across a whole episode. So by the end of it you feel emotionally very satisfied. So that storytelling is absolutely key.
Alan Alda: 17:19 And I was interested to read, um, when I was reading about the series, I was interested, interested to see that you’re able to make use of drones now in a way that sort of makes any, any part of nature that you want, like the Galapagos where it, it’s a wonderful experience to be in the Galapagos where the animals have grown up without fear of humans and they just carry on their lives right in front of you. And you can do that with a drone, with the scariest animals and, they don’t attack you and you don’t have to worry about them.
Jonny Keeling: 18:01 Yes, it, what’s brilliant is in the, in the course of, during the course of the series, drones really progressed dramatically. So about two or three years ago, uh, some new drones were brought out that flew for longer. Further, they were quieter, the cameras were more stable and better quality. So suddenly we were able to take drains pattern down. I mean some of them now are the size of your hand film, you know, HD quality images. We were filming four K so sort of twice that quality. How close are you
Alan Alda: 18:31 get to them with the drone? How close can you get to them? With the drone?
Jonny Keeling: 18:35 It depends on the animal. So we would always start quite high flying quite high. And then you bring it down lower and lower and lower. And some animals are incredibly tolerant and you could get within a, I don’t know, let’s say uh, maybe like 10, 15 meters up. But then if you’ve got a zoom lens on it, you’re getting nice details. And we were able to film sequences. We’ve got a sequence of polar bears, untying beluga whales in, uh, in the Arctic. And we were able to film that with drones. We didn’t have the drones, we wouldn’t be able to film it. And it was the drones where we’re far enough away, maybe a mile away. So we’re able to film, but we couldn’t see it with our naked eye. You can just see through the drone and film things happening, but we weren’t able to get to quick enough to capture
Alan Alda: 19:18 the way you were controlling the zone, the drone, and you were also seeing what, what was, what the action was at the same time.
Jonny Keeling: 19:26 Exactly. Yeah. Yeah. So it’s a different perspective. You get a different view, the plan view looking down and it shows you that the world in a different way but also allows you to capture behavior which you wouldn’t normally be able to film. So I think drones have been brilliant.
Alan Alda: 19:42 You can actually follow a story as it develops among a couple of actual animals and you don’t have to insert shots of other animals.
Jonny Keeling: 19:56 That’s true. Yeah. We have a scene in the Antarctic episode and I was there when we had a, we had an underwater camera operator. We had, uh, a camera man sitting on a rock filming. It was a penguin being chased by a leopard seal. And then we had a drone filming. So we filled it from three different angles. So it means that when you tell that story, again, you’re fully immersed in it. And you feel the emotions and you don’t get at all distracted by the fact that you’re sort of, um, having to kind of cut from one shop to another. Your is so smooth and integrated and that’s drones the lines to do that. We wouldn’t be able to get a helicopter there.
Alan Alda: 20:32 No. And, and you certainly wouldn’t be able to do it with conventional cameras. Have people who are not used to having to figure out where to put the camera, uh, as directors have to, it would, it may not realize that to get a scene from several different angles, you have to be able to repeat the action so you can move the camera to a different angle. But you can’t do that. You can’t have the animals repeat their action.
Jonny Keeling: 20:59 Well that’s true. I know a lot of actors who were not compliant, but this is an exciting series. I that
Alan Alda: 21:13 and we’re, we’re almost running out of time, but I’m w I wanted to, well, what did, let me, let me ask you, uh, a question of the kind that everybody always asks, but sometimes it comes, it comes up. Sometimes a question like this get somewhere, even though I’ve heard it a thousand times, was there something that really surprised you in the four years you were making this, that surprised you about nature?
Jonny Keeling: 21:47 Oh, such a good question. Um,
Alan Alda: 21:51 [inaudible] did you see animals you’d never seen before?
Jonny Keeling: 21:54 Oh yes. Yeah, definitely. I mean, there’s new species in the series that have just been discovered. There’s a, there’s a spider in Australia and the male has little paddles on his hands and looked like little shovels and he uses those to wave from behind the leaf and he waves at the female and to stop the female females. This battle, this is like being at an auction. Yeah, it’s like that and the females out hunting. But then he has to turn her mood from, from being in one of being predatory, you know, in terms of hunting animals to two actually one of love. And he needs her to get into a mood where they can mate. So he waves his little puddles and that’s a brand new species of jumping spider and Australia. So we definitely saw animals we’d never seen before. How big are these spiders? Oh, uh, just, uh, millimeters. I mean like, uh, I’m trying to think what it is in American measurements. It’s sort of five millimeters. You know, they’re tiny little things. And does he use it?
Alan Alda: 22:57 Paddles for anything else, but being sexy,
Jonny Keeling: 23:00 just, just the sexy puddles. That’s all he has. I have to get me a pair of those battles. They work. I’m spoiling.
Alan Alda: 23:13 Did what was, what was it like filming the polar bears? When was that? Did that, sounds like you’d, you’d come across a lot of very sad sites.
Jonny Keeling: 23:27 Yeah. I mean, I think it’s always sad on, I’ve worked on planet earth one on the first series and kind of has two. But on the first one, I filmed lions hunting elephants and I’m at night. So you’ve got 30 lions jumping on the back of an elephant and it’s something you want to film because you want to document it, but then when it happens, it is really sad. So I think the team, when they’re filming polar bears, you know, when they see a polar bear jump on the back of a beluga whale that’s three times the size of it and pull it under and capture it. It’s, they are amazed to see that and, but it’s a mixed emotion. You feel really sad because this is an animal, a sentient being that’s losing its life right in front of you. And that’s heartbreaking.
Alan Alda: 24:12 That’s, that’s something that’s always affected me watching nature shows. But I think one of the things that a program like this does is introduce you not only to the, or that you might feel experiencing nature even on video, but to the realities of life that the animal that killed the other animal would starve to death if it didn’t have the animal to feed on.
Speaker 3: 24:44 I think what’s so incredible about the storytelling that’s done is the way that an oftentimes you understand the, you are rooting for the predator and the prey. Um, and, and the stories of the, of really the circle of life. Ultimately it’s an incredibly life affirming experience. Um, we found through our research that even when we don’t shy away from, from showing the realities of our world, but even in some of those difficult to watch sequences, people feel actually greater appreciation for being alive and for the gift of life. And in some ways watching these things documented from the safety and comfort of your couch or your hotel lobby. Um, it gives you enough sort of safe, emotional distance to start thinking about how to, how to process some of these really difficult things like death and loss and some of the realities of life.
Alan Alda: 25:47 Great way to put it. I think I’ll be watching the series with even a, an extra, an extra dimension that you’ve put into it for me. And it really sounds fascinating and I thank you for all the trouble you went through to make this series.
Jonny Keeling: 26:05 Oh, it’s a, it’s a pleasure. It’s, I mean, it’s genuinely no trouble. I, I really enjoy it. I love it. Um, I love bringing those stories of the natural world to an audience. And I personally, you know, when I’m out on location, there’s no greater pleasure than sitting and watching an animal and trying to work out what it’s going to do and how are you going to film it and how can you tell a nice and interesting and engaging story from it. That’s the greatest pleasure. There’s nothing more sort of, um, satisfying or mindful than, than sitting and watching animals do that thing and being able to, to film that.
Alan Alda: 26:40 Well, it’s nice that you’ve made it possible for us human animals to look at the other animals. Thank you, Graham. Uh, do you have any thoughts?
Jonny Keeling: 26:50 Yeah. I just wondering during the course of the four years you were doing it, the world suddenly became aware of the climate crisis in any way, influenced the way you approached it, what you filmed, how you told your stories without always in the background because that obviously has the concept. Did you hear that? Yes, I heard that. Yeah.
Alan Alda: 27:09 Let me, let, let me, let me put it while you have cogitate let me put it into my own words. Uh, John, during the time that you were shooting this, over that four year period, the rest of the world got much more interested in climate change, uh, than they had been before, even though they’d been talking about it for a long time. Did that, did that surge in interest affect the way you were telling your stories? Did, did you, did you have a different perspective on it as you were shooting?
Jonny Keeling: 27:46 Well, we started the project four years ago and we, we plan it in the first year. So we’d already planned to include some stories of climate change. Um, and we, in Antarctica, we have a story about an albatross chick and that takes years for us to plan and prep and then go and film that story. So it didn’t change our view in that sense. Um, I mean, I thought it was, it was interesting that we had to decide, we didn’t want to have climate change say as our story in every single continent. Although obviously it’s impacting every continent. We wants to make sure that we were telling stories, uh, both stories that were realistic and maybe had some and, but also stories of hope. So in each episode we have stories which are varied, you know, some climate change in one or two, the episodes, there’s deforestation and one or two episodes, there’s, um, introduced species in Australia causing a real issue for animals there.
Jonny Keeling: 28:41 So we, we have a variety of environmental impact stories and some of them are, I’d say we have as many positive stories and stories of hope where humanity has turned things around. I’ll give you one example. And in 1986 there was a commercial ban on all the commercial whaling was banned in, uh, in the Antarctic waters. And it means that whales that were some whales that were on the brink of extension and now making a big comeback, we’d killed one and a half million whales to that point. Um, you know, for soap and Marjorie and, and, and, you know, things like that. And actually now we’re not doing it. We don’t need to get our certain monitoring that. So it’s that way on the way our numbers have come back in, in a huge, uh, it’s been a great response. And that, uh, actually we discovered the cleaner half during a filming those whales and that all that life in, in the Southern oceans, uh, absorbs twice as much carbon as a, as the Amazon rainforest. So some of the site new science in the last few years, definitely we included in our script, but the stories we planned three years ago and they were, we always plan to include a little bit of climate change and a bit of deforestation, but also, as I say, some hopeful stories, which I think is so important.
Alan Alda: 29:54 I, I agree that when we hear about the climate crisis only in terms of the hopelessness of it, it, my guess is it encourages people to do even the less about it to, to remedy it because it seems so hopeless, but it, but there are plenty of things that, that we can all do to help. And we began talking about biodiversity and the importance of it. Uh, isn’t it true that climate change is, it is, uh, threatening that very biodiversity?
Jonny Keeling: 30:30 It is, it’s definitely one of the threats. I mean, I think there are five key things that are threatening biodiversity or causing the loss of biodiversity. Climate change is one of them. Land use is another, pollution is another introduced species is another one. And then direct exploitation of animals. So over-fishing or poaching and hunting. So, um, you know, illegal hunting and so on. So there’s, there’s five kind of key reasons that the U N is cited as a, uh, major drivers of biodiversity loss.
Alan Alda: 31:03 I was thinking about what you would, when you just, when you mentioned just now the introduction of species into other areas where they’re not, uh, usually found or not having to evolve there. That kind of is, is an aspect of the seven worlds on one planet that we don’t think about often. It seems to me that I get the impression that we’re not as divided into seven different worlds as we sometimes think we are there. The species from one of those continents, we’ll get to another continent by airplane or by wind. Sometimes, um, on, on scientific American frontiers, we did a story once about clouds of dust from Africa, uh, coming over to the, to the, uh, the light, for instance, the Virgin islands and uh, damaging the coral so that they were connected in ways we don’t seem to realize is he’d had, have you, do you, do you deal with that at all in the series that how we’re more connected in some ways than we imagine?
Jonny Keeling: 32:25 We, we don’t really, it’s difficult because each show is an hour long and so we’re sort of trying to covering a continent like Asia, which is enormous and covers 60% of the landmass of the planet. You’re trying to cover all the animals or the, and the landscape and so on. So you trying to pack a lot in. So we don’t, we’ve kept them all as separate individual worlds. But in Australia for example, we do cover animals that have been introduced there when humans arrived and they brought in, uh, you know, rats and I mean, we don’t, we don’t see wraps now that we talk about some of the animals that disappeared when foxes and rabbits, all the animals that suddenly get introduced and then change the whole ecosystem because that continent is, has been as developed and evolved without any, um, any of those animals. I think we did a similar thing in the Galapagos.
Jonny Keeling: 33:13 We introduced animals that are not, yes, not so friendly to the environment. And it seems like all of our ingenious advances, airplanes, boats, all the, all the ways we have of exploring the planet, bring, bring with it, bring with them these introductions of things that don’t fit so well into the jigsaw puzzle that you find every other continent. That’s true. I mean, one of the things I think is interesting is that at the end of this, all the, all the continents are when they’ve all drifted apart. They’re going to drift. They’re starting to drift back now. I think we’re there as far apart as they will ever be and they’re drifting back and eventually they will smash all into each other again and for one gigantic supercontinent. We’re like, wait my mind, I can’t wait to see the series you’ve come up with after that happened. Thank you both for being on. Thank you so much. Thank you. Thank you. Thanks so much.
C+V is going on a short holiday break. We’ll be back On Tuesday, January 7th with an earth-moving interview with Dr. Lucy Jones, one of the world’s leading seismologists. From the C+V team and the Alda family – have a wonderful holiday and wishing you all the very best for the year ahead! Bye Bye!